Bite - is the ratio of dentition with serried jaws. With the right (physiological) bite the upper teeth for about one-third of a closed bottom. At the same time all the upper teeth are in contact with the lower of the same name, and there are no gaps in the teeth rows.
The pathogenesis of deep bite
Most often, this anomaly is inherited from parents. In addition, the irregular shape of the bite may arise during fetal development due to the following factors:
- pathology of pregnancy;
- exchange of disease agents, viral infections mother;
- intrauterine infection of the fetus.
After the birth of a deep bite can be configured for the following reasons:
- respiratory system diseases, endocrine pathology of upper respiratory tract;
- Malnutrition, lack of vitamins and minerals;
- disorders of the musculoskeletal system (violation of posture, skeletal diseases);
- diseases and disorders of dental system (frequent dental caries, tooth loss, breach of the eruption process, anomalies of bridles lips and tongue);
- prolonged sucking nipples, fingers, etc..
Deep bite entail serious consequences:
- injury palatal mucosa areas;
- shattering the front teeth;
- rapid erasure of the enamel;
- damage to the gums;
- violation of chewing function and speech;
- diseases of the digestive organs.
Deep distal occlusion, when the upper jaw development is much lower (upper front teeth too put forward in relation to the bottom), and leads to respiratory failure. As a result - a chronic disease of the respiratory tract, nose and throat. The external manifestation of a deep bite - the shortening of the lower part of the face, lips ugly situation, a thickening of the lower lip.
Treatment of deep bite
When correcting a deep bite is taken into account the age of the patient, the clinic and the reasons for the anomaly. Of course, the most effective correction of deep bite is held during the eruption of primary and permanent teeth (temporary and mixed dentition).
Consider how to treat a deep bite in the period of milk teeth (temporary):
- introducing into the diet more solid food;
- excommunication of bad habits (thumb sucking, biting lips, objects);
- timely treatment of dental caries;
- surgery in the case of improper frenum.
At the age of 6 to 12 years already requires the active orthodontic treatment. For this purpose, special designs - the vestibular plate, trainers, caps. The operation of these devices is based on the direction of the efforts of masticatory muscles on the individual teeth.
Parallel is assigned a set of exercises for the development of the correct direction of the jaw.
How to fix a deep bite in permanent dentition period (from 12 years), defines an orthodontist, depending on the severity of the disease. In the most severe cases, can be applied
But more often the problem of deep bite is solved with the help of braces. This may be used ligvalnaya brace system, which is located on the inner surface of the teeth. Braces improve the bite, thus separating the tooth rows. Also for posterior teeth braces modeled overlap all or part of the occlusal (chewing) surfaces.
In contrast to the correction of deep bite external braces, lingual system does not require palatal devices. treatment time is about 2-3 years.